Nowadays, with the assistance of airline travelling, television as well as internet communication, the cross-cultural interactions are growing between the western countries and the popular Asian countries at many levels (Gunde, 2002). Moreover, these cross-cultural communications have played a significant role for incorporating different western cultural elements such as music and arts, food, clothing and architecture into different popular Chinese, Indonesian and Japanese cultures (Allen & Sakamoto, 2006). This thesis writing service illustrates about the incorporation of western cultural elements with the Asian cultures as well as discusses about the acceptance or criticism of Asian countries concerning western cultural elements.
Popular Cultures of Asia
China is situated in the area known as East Asia and the country is officially atheist as the communist state however, folk beliefs, incorporating local gods, household gods, and ancestor worship reclined at the center of the much customs (Holt et al., 2007). Moreover, in China mandarin is the most extensively used language, which is spoken by around seventy percent of the population and utilized for the governmental communication. Moreover, Calligraphy has traditionally been considered as the highest form of visual art to the point that in china character of the individuals is judged by the grace of their handwriting (Gunde, 2002).
However, the Indonesia is situated in the Southeast Asia and it has been considered as the most culturally diverse country in the world. The Indonesia is the country with 500 ethnic groups and over 300 different languages and these languages are spoken along with the Lingua Franca, Indonesian that is the type of Malay (Kalman, 2008). The dominant religion in Indonesia is Islam however, Islam of Indonesians are different from other Islamic countries due to the integration with distinct local belief system. Moreover, Indonesian art forms in the shape of Wayang Theater demonstrated the cultural mix within the country (Holt et al., 2007).
Moreover, the Japan is located in the East Asia that has the mix population of Koreans, Chinese, Burakumin and Okinawans. Moreover, Shinto and Buddhism are the main religions with the local belief systems (Holt et al., 2007). The Japanese language has quite resemblance to the Korean language and these ideographic characteristic has provided syllabaries used in written Japanese. Moreover, painting has been an art in the Japan and the extension of that to its utilization are natural things (Kalman, 2008).
Elements of Western Culture Influencing Asian Cultures
Among number of elements of western culture, this section of the paper is illustrating four main elements of the western culture, which are influencing the Asian cultures, namely arts and music, clothes, food, and architecture.
Arts and Music
Modern art of western culture has focused on the variety and radical experimentation. It has been observed that the major musical trend underwent the procedure of composition in which an order of succession is set for specific values such as pitch, loudness, and units of time. The symphony, concerto, opera, and Ontario possess their origins in Italy and many renowned musical instruments such as piano, saxophone, violin, Theremin, and pipe organ were also developed in West (Spielvogel, 2010). On the other hand, art of western culture values the realistic portraits and oil painting is considerably originated by Jan van Eyck. Furthermore, the depictions of undressed human male and female in photography, sculpture, and painting are considered to have significant artistic merits (Greger, 2004).
This coursework writing service considers that the western culture and architecture extracts much of its richness and resonances from the fact that their origins are not from the Europe. The most important motifs of western architecture include Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic columns along with different styles such as Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque, and Victorian are recognized widely (Roth, 2007). It can be said that the mostly western architecture emphasizes the repetition of simple motifs, straight lines, and undecorated planes. The modern ubiquitous form of western architecture, which emphasizes this characteristic, is the skyscraper and it was first developed in New York and Chicago (Watkin, 2005).
In the western culture, fat in food is considered as the dietary villain because it is bad for health and for the body. The reason behind it is that the western individuals believe in separation of the universe and human in their cultural spirit and thinking model while emphasizing on the form and structure of clearness, they have formed a significant idea about the food science. In western culture, individuals prefer balanced requirements of every kind of nutrient for each part of their body. They consider the physiological needs of the body through cooking the raw materials and reflecting the nice taste of every kind of materials used (Freedman, 2007).
In traditional western culture, the formal dress code in clothing style for men are not changed for more than fifty years, whereas, the casual clothing style changes quickly. In case of women, the clothing styles changes more rapidly in western culture. Moreover, practically, the dress codes are followed intuitively or are enforced by the pressure from others; therefore, people dress in similar clothing styles in particular situations. At formal events, the dress code in western culture is mostly specified and individuals wear clothes at the specified level according to the permission granted from the host (Spielvogel, 2010). Additionally, the smart casual clothing style in western culture usually consists of blazer or sports jacket with collared shirt and dress trousers. Similarly, business casual is in the domain of most fluid dress codes with standards differing from city to city or organization to organization. In business casual dress code, the dress pants are acceptable in western culture with casual shoes (Susanne Küchler, 2005).
Incorporation of Western Cultural Elements in Asian Cultures
Undoubtedly, the incorporation of western cultural elements in Asian Cultures is the result of increasing globalization. Moreover, a question, which comes in one’s mind, is why only the western culture influences the cultures of Asian countries of China, Japan and Indonesia on large scale and why these countries are not able to make the west influence of their culture. The answer is found very simple, that the west since past few centuries has been considered one of the growing economical and technological powers; therefore, it is the west which dominates the scenario (Mclntyre, 1998).
Role of Media
Media has always been such a powerful medium in promoting the cultural values, and has always been utilized by the western societies to impose their views. If it is looked back to the 16the century, an evidence of the cultural interaction can be found by examining the popularity of Shakespearian literature. Although, there was no such powerful media at that time; yet, this little interaction through literature media has marked its significance.
In recent years the electronic media and most, popularly the television media has played its vital role in transmitting the western cultural elements. The elements like clothes, language, music and other forms of arts are those popular cultures, which have found their ways to penetrate in Asian countries through media technologies. Moreover, it can be seen that since the development of the modern media has arisen, the market of the western music has grown enormously in all dimensions. Furthermore, the advertisements on western channels have appealed the Asian population, particularly in China, Japan and Indonesia on large scale (Durham & Kellner, 2006).
In order to establish a unique identity, Governments seek to maintain their Departments of cultures, which help in enhancing national identities. Therefore, the Governments of Western countries have influenced the Asian countries of China, Japan and Indonesia by giving the scholarships opportunities to the students these Asian countries. These students have their education from these countries and adopt their cultural elements such as, language, food and most prominently the fascinating music of west.
Moreover, the Governments of the western countries design such appealing tourism policies, in order to sustain their economy, in which they try to maintain their valuable architectures and fine arts museum. The results of these architectures appear in a form of Asian adaptation of the building designs and, particularly in hotels. One of the common examples of adaptation of architecture is an ascending inclination of Japan and China towards the skyscrapers building culture. This skyscraper buildings culture has been adopted from the West, as west has been a pioneer in constructing skyscrapers (Fulga, 2005).
Cross Cultural Interactions
Continuing with the last discussion, it can be evaluated that the governments appears responsible in this cross-cultural interaction. However, the governmental policies are not only way of this cultural hybridization, the modern technologies such internet has squeezed the differences in large scale. The interaction through internet gives the masses opportunities to understand the culture of other civilizations; therefore, these cultural interactions have brought the civilizations closer and have given them options to pick those cultural elements what they like to adopt.
Furthermore, an element hidden in cross-cultural interactions are the cross culture marriages, these marriages usually occur when the immigrants from these Asian countries approach the western territories, resulting they look for having their own families in western countries. The outcomes of these marriages can be observed by analyzing the cross generations of the couples. Another way of cross cultural interactions, is the business dealings across the borders, though, this approach does not much influence the cultural transmission, however, they have played a very essential role in promoting the western language (Edwards, 1995).
Asians Acceptance of the Western Cultural Elements
As, there is growing interaction observed between western culture and popular cultures of Asia including China, Indonesia and Japan, the acceptance of the western cultural elements by Asians has initiated the debate about whether this incorporation should be accepted or not (Rüdiger & Gross, 2009). It is found that in the process of globalization, different nations and cultures have to interact while the huge gaps that have always been the contributing factors amongst the nations for distance is now reduced (Lee, 2006). Today, the least gap found specifically between western and Asian cultures is taken positively, and it is mostly accepted by the young generation (Korte et al., 2010). Such as, pop-music which is the important part of western culture has significantly influenced the Asian cultures and now pop-music has become important part of Chinese, Japanese and Indonesian culture (Gruen, 2005) . However, in the interaction of cultures, the process of acceptance or rejection is important when western culture becomes the means to challenge the fundamental norms and values of those Asian cultures. It is because the culture of westernization is related to modernization while Asian cultures are still considered to remain associated with the historically conservative and fundamental cultural values, where incorporation of western culture could be considered as great threat for Asians cultures (Chapman, 2010).
However, when the terms incorporation of western culture with Asian culture are used, it does not mean to become westernized and fully suppressing own cultural values, rather it means to make specific elements as part culture that is similar (Williams, 2003). It can better be understood by the example of cinema, cinema is China has historically been very popular and considered as important part of their cultural growth (Latham, 2007). In western society, on the other hand, cinema growth has been observed as contributing factor to economic development, therefore, western culture more emphasizes on the cinema growth and its development (Harper & Rayner, 2010). Chinese society where cinema had been merely a source of cultural growth found the western cinema as important source to use the cinema more than just cultural part (Korte et al., 2010). Thus, popularity of western cinema in China does not mean that Chinese should forget their values and adopt the westernized culture but to accept the western cinema without considering it as harmful. Today, it is seen that popular cultures of Asia such as China, Japan and Indonesia have incorporated western foods, music, clothes and architecture as part of their culture without avoiding their culture.
The acceptance level seen in the Asian regarding western culture is related to belief of many common people that western culture is unique and contains different such aspect that attract the young generations in respective countries. Therefore, incorporation of western culture does not mean to suppress those Asian cultures, but rather to use it as source to enrich the original culture of nations (Lee, 2006). Three is specific class who considers that incorporation of western culture into popular culture of Asia is the way of propaganda and therefore it is seen that western culture more emphasizes on westernization rather than merely adopting specific element of the culture (Williams, 2003).
It is concluded that there is a least gap found between the western and Asian cultures and western culture is significantly accepted by the younger generation of the Asian countries. Moreover, westerns eating habits, modern art and musical trends as well as architecture have significantly influenced the Japanese, Chinese, and Indonesian culture. Moreover, cross-cultural interaction has attributed the cross-cultural marriages and extensive utilization of western language in the Asian countries. Moreover, the western culture has attributed the Asian culture to the greatest Cultural Revolution in the 21st century.